Article #306

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posted by sakurai on September 1, 2020 #306




Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a method often proposed for calculation of the PMHF in real-world systems. However, FTA is a very general method, subject to a wide range of interpretations and techniques depending on the objectives of a given problem, the type of failures & faults being considered, and the terminology employed by various industries. There is not yet an accurate and well-explained practical guide to the specific techniques appropriate for PMHF calculation in the automotive industry. For example, large and complex systems, such as those that comprise real-world automotive products, are often difficult to capture in an FTA in a systematic and repeatable way. The use of diagnostic coverage (D.C.) (e.g., by an imperfect safety mechanism which may detect some but not all element faults) is often utilized in hardware metric calculations. However, D.C. concepts are not widely clarified in the industry literature, leaving a gap in understanding for many FTA practitioners. At lower levels of the FTA, specific frameworks for calculating the effect of single-point and dual-point faults (including dual-point latent faults) are necessary to obtain a correct PMHF estimation. All these topics will be addressed here along with a worked automotive example.

フォールトツリー解析(FTA)は、実世界のシステムにおけるPMHFの計算のためにしばしば提案される手法です。しかし、FTAは非常に一般的な手法であり、与えられた問題の目的、考慮される故障や故障の種類、そして様々な業界で採用されている用語に応じて、幅広い解釈や技術の対象となっています。自動車産業におけるPMHF計算に適した特定の技術については、正確かつ十分に説明された実用的なガイドはまだ存在しません。例えば、実際の自動車製品を構成するような大規模で複雑なシステムは、体系的で再現性のある方法でFTAに取り込むことが困難な場合が多い。診断カバレッジ(D.C.)(例えば、一部の要素の故障は検出できるが、すべての要素の故障は検出できない不完全な安全機構)の使用は、しばしばハードウェアメトリックの計算に利用されます。しかし、D.C.の概念は業界の文献では広く明確にされておらず、多くのFTA実務者にとっては理解にギャップがあります。FTA の低レベルでは、正しい PMHF 推定を得るためには、単点および二点故障(二点潜伏故障を含む)の影響を計算するための特定のフレームワークが必要となります。ここでは、これらすべてのトピックについて、実際の自動車の例を挙げながら解説します。

$\dagger$N. Das and W. Taylor, "Quantified fault tree techniques for calculating hardware fault metrics according to ISO 26262," 2016 IEEE Symposium on Product Compliance Engineering (ISPCE), Anaheim, CA, 2016, pp. 1-8, doi: 10.1109/ISPCE.2016.7492848.

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